Designing an active phase change material package for thermal and qualitative protection of meat
The present study aims to develop a novel process for improving the functional properties of beef. For this purpose, the effect of high-intensity ultrasound, alone and in combination with papain was investigated on pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), emulsion capacity and stability, cooking loss, and gelling property of Longissimus lumborum muscle. Meat samples were subjected to sonication (20 kHz, 100 and 300 W) for 10, 20 and 30 min in the presence and absence of papain solution. Results indicated that the application of ultrasound individually or in combination with papain significantly influenced on the functional properties of beef. For all tested samples compared with the untreated meat, there was a significant increase in the WHC, emulsion capacity and stability and a significant decrease in cooking loss. Generally, our findings suggest that the combination of ultrasound and papain was more beneficial for improving functional properties of meat compared with the individual treatment.