Evaluation of wheat ﬂour substitution with amaranth ﬂour on chicken nugget properties
Maryam Tamsen, Hajar Shekarchizadeh, Naﬁseh Soltanizadeh. 2018. Evaluation of wheat ﬂour substitution with amaranth ﬂour on chicken nugget properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 91:580-587.
The objective of this study was to investigate the eﬀect of substitution of wheat ﬂour with amaranth ﬂour in batter, chicken paste and all layers of chicken nuggets at 0, 50 and 100% levels. The chemical composition, pH and phenolic compounds of amaranth ﬂour, chemical composition and pH of chicken nugget, chicken paste emulsion stability, texture properties, color, porosity, cooking loss, oil absorption, degree of oxidation and sensory characteristics of produced nuggets were evaluated. Inclusion of amaranth ﬂour signiﬁcantly increased minerals, ﬁber, fat, and protein of nuggets. The pH of all nuggets containing amaranth ﬂour was higher than the control. Emulsion stability of paste was the highest in samples with amaranth ﬂour in all layers. All the TPA parameters and cutting force increased by increasing the amount of amaranth in each layer. However, amaranth ﬂour darkened nuggets. The presence of amaranth ﬂour in nuggets signiﬁcantly increased porosity, oil absorption and cookingloss. TBA value of nuggets containing amaranth ﬂour was lower than control sample during 13 days storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluation of nuggets showed that substitution of wheat ﬂour with amaranth ﬂour in nuggets did not have signiﬁcant eﬀect on the overall acceptability of the product.
Keywords: Amaranth Wheat Flour Chicken nugget